Second Language Acquisition


Diversity in linguistic is common in today’s society with a growing interest in the linguistic landscape. The language landscape provides the visibility and the salience of a variety of languages on the public and the commercial signs in a particular region and territory. It is a concept that is applied in sociolinguistics on the study of how various languages are used visually in multilingual communities like Australia (Hyde, Carpenter & Conway, 2014). The paper will consider the issues that are raised regarding language and literacy teaching and learning for the EAL/D children.

Therefore, Australia being a multilingual community, there are a number of factors that contribute to the complexity of the language landscape.  These factors are immigration, globalization, and tourism. The immigrants from different communities come to Australia with their dialects adding to the original language of the nation. The official language in Australia is English and it’s spoken across the nation. However, the complexity of the language based on its origin affects its structures among the other nations. Therefore, the people coming from other parts of the world come to Australia with their English language structure influencing the other parties within their set-up. Basically, it has been noticed that the language that is being taught in the institutions is perhaps different from the one being spoken outside the school and in the society in general (Hyde, Carpenter & Conway, 2014). These make language especially English to have a complex structure based on the influence it brings to the people especially the students. Therefore, immigration, globalization and tourism have brought in people to Australia having a different dialect adding to the complexity of English language.

English as an additional language/ Dialect (EAL/D) are those whose first language is perhaps a language or a dialect other than English and require support to help them develop proficiency in English language. The main challenge of the EAL/D children is that their first language or dialect is perhaps not Australia English or dialect hence making it difficult for them to learn and catch up with the mainstream classroom classes. Moreover, there exist some links between the cultural or linguistics varieties and are potentially disadvantaged at schools. The EAL/D children have an extension of cultural diversity that might affect their relationship with other children and teachers. Therefore, this becomes a challenge for the children to corporate and learn based on language barrier and cultural or linguistics among the class (Hyde, Carpenter & Conway, 2014). Additionally, the EAL/D children find it challenging in the new environment based on the second language learning process and culture. The children find the environment different thus affecting their studies and learning outcome.

The EAL/D children are just like other students and the teachers should learn and understand them for effective teaching outcomes. The main issue affecting EAL/D children is the first language which they obtained from other nation. Therefore, I think the teachers need the following key things to enable them to teach effectively. They need to consider that students with EAL/D have diverse educational backgrounds. First, the EAL/D children may have a schooling that is equivalent to their same-age peers in the Australian schools. Second, the children may lack a previous or a limited education that might be a barrier to understanding some concepts in the latter framework of their learning criteria. Third, the children may have a good academic language skill but normally struggle with the common social registers of the English. Therefore, the good skills are an indication that they can still do well in the mainstream class as another student. Fourth, the children may have learned the English language as a foreign language and had exposure to some written English but only require developing their oral English skills. Fifth, the EAL/D children may have already learned single or multiple languages or perhaps dialects apart from English. Therefore, all these factors provide both positive and negative of having an EAL/D children as a teacher in a class. It is imperative to understand the above factors for effective teaching.


M. de Courcy in Hyde, M., Carpenter, L., & Conway, R. (2014). Diversity, inclusion and engagement (2nd Ed.). Chapter 3 – Linguistic and Cultural Diversity, pp. 41- 65.

Indecisions around People’s Acts of Consumption

She says that people have actually remembered them as a commodity that has been lost in the space to make it more outrageous and perhaps a distinctive factor that comes with the exorbitant commodity.  This aspect seems to appease her inner self and also gain the identity of the people around. Moreover, she remembers a story of an engagement ring that belongs to a Chinese grandmother which was inherited after a family dispute. This explains the kind of ties people have with products.

Moreover, she reminds us of the original context of the imperial and the inflections based on race of the capitalist consumptions and also the continuing relation with the aspect of slavery, movement, and the existing worldwide labor. She uses Marx understanding of the exchange values and alienation of men from goods. Consequently, she notes how Marx of the all-consuming commodity through ‘fetishism’ of the present cultures to explain the issue of charms and the practice to object worship (Chin 210). She compares the present capitalism to the aspect of fetish which is attributed to the worship of objects through magical inherence. It is worth noting that Marx traded more on the aspect of the supernatural life of the objects explaining the various facts of labor and the condition of the people working. Therefore, it is vivid that people worship objects and that is why individuals all over life fight to have ownership. There are lots of wrangles such as the acquisition of the Chinese grandmother jewelry which explains what is happening in the society (Chin 210).

Chin relates capitalism to the aspect of extravagant spending which is valid through the purchase of a metallic shoe. She buys a pair of metallic shoes to show the variety of personal values such as buying expensive objects which they end up not using. Therefore, through this aspect of extravagance, Chin wants us to learn that in a capitalist society people don’t purchase because they want to use but they buy due to the value of the product which they end up not using. These are examples of irrational consumers who move with the trends that are dictated by some people in the society who control the market (Chin 152). Moreover, it is clear that despite the exorbitant price of a commodity it can still serve just as a cheap product does. There are products that are raised on the basis of status quo or social class through their qualities cannot relate to the price tags attached. Therefore, there is something that would make someone to purchase luxurious goods which are determined by a Capitalist society (Page).

Consequently, through the antique oriental rugs cases in the story, Chin fought honestly with her desire and the spectra of the Chinese Child Laborers. She states that the cognitive fight that existed within his mind in making a choice and decision in the purchase of the rugs based on self-esteem (Page108). Therefore, she acknowledges the war of attrition that we face and also the aspect of how ethics erode the face of consumer’s desire. Thus, the questions that arise are like how possible can they buy such commodities and instead we have a more sympathetic commodities to reflect on the situation of choice making and therefore through this, Chin’s credit that she refuses to deny the aspect of a strong consumer’s attitudes while at the same time recognizing the disease at the heart of the culture commodity.


In the book ‘My Life with Things’ Chin states the various uncertainties that exist in the aspect values, emotions, and various concepts. Through her statements, we are able to understand the aspect of capitalism. She relates her own life’s processes and operations to pass to create a connection to what is happening in the society. For example, her purchasing habit that is exhibited through the metallic purple shoe to describe the relative desire that is always attached before someone purchases a commodity.

Work cited

Chin, Elizabeth. My Life with Things: The Consumer Diaries. London: Duke University Press, 2016.

Page, Vanessa. The Psychology behind Why People Buy Luxury Goods, 22 Sept. 2017    people-buy-luxury-goods.asp, 8 March 2017.


It is better to go for organic foods


The choice of the types of food that is healthy has been an issue in the current society. Organic foods are grown without the use of synthetic pesticides, the bioengineered genes, the petroleum-based fertilizers and the sewage sludge-based fertilizers which poses so much health risks to the consumers of the food. Health is a significant issue that needs more consideration. There are a lot of benefits that comes with having the right choice of food since they are making since health is important. Therefore, organic foods are better than the inorganic foods since they are naturally produced and processed meaning that they are free from chemicals. Moreover, organic foods contain natural minerals and nutrients which our bodies require for the purposes of growth, the resistance of disease and also energy production. Therefore, it is better to go for organic foods.

The organic foods are known to have 50% of the minerals, nutrients, and vitamins. Therefore, this indicates that they are free from pollutants and chemicals that non-organic foods generate. The nutrients and minerals that are obtained from natural foods have health benefits such as good metabolic reactions, good and normal state of the body required for the normal working of all the metabolic reactions.  Moreover, the vitamins obtained through the organic foods are able to perform their role without posing any side effects compared to non-organic food materials that have advance risks. These chemicals and pollutants have significant effects on the health of the consumer of such foods such as hormonal imbalance, allergies, and others effects.

Moreover, the organic foods have shown examples of a healthy and conducive environment. The techniques in relation to farming used in the growing of organic foods are much cleaner and safer for both the health of an individual and environment. It is vivid that if someone eats a non-organic apple there are chances of consuming more than 32 pesticides. However, the organic foods are free from the pesticides since they are produced without the use of dangerous pesticides. Consequently, the organic foods have indicated healthy minerals such as zinc and iron that are required in the body. It is clear that no one in the society would like to have the complication in his or her health. Therefore, it is important to take organic foods since they have the right nutrients, environmentally friendly and healthy minerals. There are so many health issues existing in the society such as heart diseases that have been contributed to the consumption of non-organic food substances.

However, in most cases, people argue that organic foods are expensive compared to the non-organic ones. This goes with the logic that something cheap has the probability of lacking standard which in this case is having adverse effects. Therefore, the organic foods are expensive because they are important to our bodies compared to other cheap non-organic foods. The non-organic foods undergo a short cycle in the production process compared to the complete cycle which organic foods go through. This is evident since non-organic foods require a boast in terms of pesticides and other synthetic techniques for their growth and developments. The level of chemicals used in the production of organic foods makes them appealing compared to the natural foods. However, in the long run, the non-organic foods pose a significant negative health issue to the bodies of the consumers.

The non-organic foods cause of heart disease as compared to the organic foods. The heart diseases according to medical doctors are caused by high-level blood sugars which are mainly obtained from the consumption of non-organic foods having excess blood sugars. Moreover, the non-organic foods have heavy metals ions which are informed of chemical remnants. The consumptions of the metals ions result in various reactions with the metals ions in the blood and eventually leading to heart disease.  Consequently, it is imperative that non-organic foods are capable of causing mental disorders. This is because of the existence of the toxic heavy metals such as mercury and lead that are present in non-organic foods. Thus, the consumptions of these heavy metals’ ions result in neurological damage to the humans. Moreover, some of the non-organic foods have food additives that interfere with the normal functioning of the brain. Also, the food coloring present in the non-organic foods has carcinogenic which can cause damage to the brain. Therefore, it is better to take organic or natural food despite its scarcity and cost.


The organic foods diets are able to save people the cost that is incurred in the treatment of health problems compared to the non-organic foods diet. There are adverse effects that come with the use of non-organic food substances. The non-organic foods have heavy metals such as lead and mercury that can cause massive damage to the brain leading to disorder. Moreover, the presence of pesticides and other techniques used in the processing of synthetic materials have caused health problems to the consumers such as heart problems. Thus, organic food is better compared to the non-organic foods.


Film review and evaluation

Movie 1

The Chinese Exclusion Act movie by Ric Barns and Li-Shin Yu involve various aspect of racism in the United States of America about the immigration process. The immigration to the United States during the late 19th to the 20th century was expected to create a new life of prosperity. However, based on the influx of racism in the region, many laws and acts were past to limit the immigrants from other nations. This includes the Chinese Exclusion Acts to control the number of Chinese coming to the US. There were several examinations and test that were carried out before anyone was allowed to earn the US citizenship. However, the Chinese American who faced a lot of challenges is now spread throughout the nations and has kept their culture. The Chinese Exclusion Act was landmark legislation for the reasons of restricting immigration and struck down all the undocumented immigrants.

Therefore, the Chinese Exclusion Act was repealed during the 20th century to Magnuson Act which permitted about 105 Chinese immigrants. Some factors contributed to the repealing of the Act such as quieted anti-Chinese sentiments for the regain of rights. According to the movie, they remained and withstood the entire process of their rights being denied. Moreover, due to the law few of the Asian was able to travel back to their nations since they would be required to start a new process of reexamination to enter again. Therefore, they remained submissive under the law with minimal resistance movement since they did not have the power to assist them to fight.

Movie 2

In the movie ‘’Streams of light’’ shin Buddhist goes through transformational changes based on various legislation that exists in the United States of America. The Shin was no more than a representation enshrined to guide the people from the truth. Therefore, the reevaluation process allowed and created an ample environment for Shin Buddhist. Immediately, upon entry to the United States of America, Shin Buddhist considered the process of evaluation based on its role in the society and also within the shin community. Moreover, the issues of secularization process available in the society promoted the process of evaluation. This was meant to reduce the tension that existed between the poles, secular and religious. It existed to provide the motive force and expand its force further for development of Shin doctrinal studies. Therefore, it was necessary for the reevaluation process.

The significant cultural challenges according to the movie were the issue of secularization that had embedded its routes in the region. Moreover, it was very hard for people to join through their religion based on the language barrier and existence of a variety of cultures. However, this was tacked with the system being reevaluated to motivate the society about their religious practices. This is because the society wanted to have something that is easy to understand and common. Therefore, learning through cross-cultural languages promoted and created an understanding of the facts allowing people to understand what the religion is about other than criticizing.


‘’Chinese Exclusion Act’’

‘’Streams of Light”


Discussion Question

Discussion Question: Mod 3

Week two

Among the available sources on the website, I would not use Wikipedia as a point of reference for any of my classwork. This is because Wikipedia is not always a reliable source for information.  Sometimes it can have mistaken or false information. It is susceptible to having errors because anyone can edit an article on the site without any research-based facts. Therefore, any other person or a user may fix any mistakes that might alter the facts about a subject. Moreover, the website consists of volunteers who are not dedicated to their work and may not be having accurate information as compared to other sites. Thus, there is a high degree of being misled while using the source.

Therefore, apart from the Trident’s library quality resources can be obtained from journals, periodicals, newspapers, Fortunes, Newsweek, and Government resources. These sources can provide anyone with quality information that has been researched well.


Discussion post: Mod 4

Week one

Ethics is a moral principle which can control an individual behavior concerning activities being carried out. In the present society, the consumers of media require quick, informative and exciting information which all lean on communication aspects. There are lots of things that have been happening between the media, advertising, and marketing.  For example, consider a scenario where an actor hired by a particular Company strikes a conversation with the potential consumers of the product to praise the Company’s product or service. Therefore, this situation can be related to the incident that was written about Sony Ericsson hiring actors to pose as the tourist to go to the Empire states buildings and request other visitors to take photos with them using the brand’s Cameras. It is vivid that there are lots of deceptions that are present in the media in the name of marketing for products (Selgelid, 2009). The Companies are found collaborating with the media in the plan for deceptive advertisement to attract consumers in using the products.

Moreover, the society has been receiving a lot of deceptive products that don’t perform or match the praises that are present during marketing. The desire to earn and control the market has transformed the marketers to be controlled by the weight of money in exchange for lies to the public. Therefore, advertising has been significantly criticized due to the reasoning that selling carries a lot of stigmas. It has been stated that market is the place that is set aside where men may deceive each other. Thus, presently despite the much rise in consumerism and efforts to counter market deceptions, the buyers are still gullible and are not on guard against deceptions.


Selgelid, M. J. (2009). Governance of dual-use research: an ethical dilemma. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 87(9), 720-723.

Week two

I have learned so much about ethics in class I believe it has influenced my life significantly in my general behavior in school and also in the future workplace. I learned that Ethics is primarily what an individual believes is good or bad or the rules of behavior based on ideas about what is morally good or bad. Moreover, I learned about the various theories of ethics such as virtue ethics, deontology, and utilitarian ethics. The virtue theory states that an individual throughout their life should always strive for more excellence in their entire life experience. Therefore, it is clear that this theory expects people to work properly and deliver their best at work and in school and this is considered to be another aspect of ethical standards. Consequently, I also picked on the aspect that managers hire people with integrity.

Therefore, to add to what I have learned in class, I think it is important to have respect for all people despite color, race, authority or a fellow worker and other categories in life. It is essential to see and treat every with due respect. This will transform my behavior at school and also in the workplace by making me more responsible socially.

Mod 4: Peer one response

Hello J. Michael Lundell,

I want to appreciate you for this kind of post since it addresses the issue of ethical concerns. You have addressed the responsibilities of two leaders where one is concerned with performing what he said while the other appears to tolerate the criminals in the States. It is true that many people are worried about how the people have been lenient on the criminals who are not even the citizens of the United States. I agree with your concern because it is very risky to have criminals around any nation. However, I believe the call of duty may be a warning as it is stated so than when the government acts there will be no blame on the actions from the United Nations.

Peer two response

Hello J. Michael Lundell,

First, I want to thank you for your post on ethics. It is always important to have people like your father who have a stand-in doing the right things since that is a part that is missing in the society. Moreover, I also agree with the fact that integrity is an important code of ethics that an individual ought to have. Most of the people hide and pretend to do the right thing when they are being watched but do the opposite behind the cameras. Therefore, it is important to do the right thing when being watched or not.


Cross-Cultural Intelligence at the Workplace

The case study of Dubai

Dimensions of cultural variability

The power distance index

These concepts have been used in making derivatives for the social relationship that exists in the society in understanding the level of power to enable effective communication between individuals. The Swedish Sami Reindeer had to submit for the power that was coming from the tourist and recreational activities.


Refers to the degree at which an individual is integrated into a group. Therefore, on the individualist side involve the society where the ties between individuals are loose, and everyone is expected to look after him or herself. The nation of Dubai has not understood that not all nations are composed of Muslim community only but a mixture of the variety of cultural and religious backgrounds. On the other hand, the tourist seemed to be titled to the aspect of individualism without much consideration to other people’s operations and activities.


Masculinity versus femininity refers to the distribution of roles between the genders which is another fundamental aspect of any society. The positive pole is known as masculine while the modest and caring is known as the feminine nation. Therefore, based on the case nation above it is vivid that it is a masculine nation. Therefore, a tourist understanding the situation will have ample time for the consideration of laws. It is much easy to follow the right and placed laws since a masculine society is not as caring as a feminine nation. Based on the case study it is vivid that the tourist department of Swedish is a masculine type of management.

Uncertainty Avoidance index

This deals with a society’s tolerance for uncertainty. It represents what the society can accept with its unknown and unseen subjects which are mainly referred to a man’s search for truth.  Therefore, the people in uncertainty avoidance nations are more emotional and motivated by an inner nervous system. On the other hand, certainty people tend to have a few rules and regulations compared to their counterpart uncertainty people. Therefore, Dubai consists of people who are uncertain based on the rules and regulations that they have based on religion aspect. This is also the same case with the example in the Swedish study.

The long-term orientation versus the short-term orientation

The fifth dimension was traced from a study among the learners in about 23 nations globally using a questionnaire. It states that value that is attached to long-term orientation are a thrift while short-term orientations are concerning tradition, fulfilling social obligations and protecting an individual’s face. Therefore, based on the variability it is clear that Dubai has a short-term orientation. This is also vivid in Swedish case as Reindeer is replaced from his former herd area.

Intercultural communications

It is vivid that tourism has become an international phenomenon of a global consequence. The internationalization of the tourism industry is complex based on cross-cultural communication and understanding. There are potential barriers to the cross-cultural communications. The first is the barrier of language differences. Language is more than just learning its vocabulary and grammar. Therefore, knowing what to say and how to say it is very important for the effective relationship in a foreign land. Second, the issues of non-verbal communications such as gestures and posture that are learned without the person speaking have also contributed to the barrier. People will always read the non-verbal communication such as clothing gestures and others that might result in misunderstanding. Third, do the stereotypes constitute a significant barrier to communication between cross cultures? This is based on the fact that we try to fit individuals into patterns based on past experienced that tends to control our minds (Boer & Fischer, 2013). For example, if an individual perceives that a certain nation is always unfriendly, then the interpretation of the behavior is made valid. A fourth barrier is perhaps the tendency of evaluating other people’s cultures as good or bad. The fifth barrier is the existence of high level of stress that is accompanied by the intercultural interactions between the peoples from various cultures.

Solutions to the cross-cultural conflict

To achieve a cross-cultural understanding and make sure that tourism is satisfied with their overseas travel. Language is an important factor that can lead to a greater misunderstanding between the host and the coming tourist. Therefore, it is important that the host to be aware of the tourist’s language habits and traditions to cope with the necessary factors in the days of visits of the tourist. In most cases, it is essential for the host to provide an extensive on-site interpretation to avoid confusion between existing difference languages. The traveler’s agencies also need to provide some host with including information of embassy, Police, and other organizations.

Moreover, it is important for the tourist to understand the various aspects of life in the host nations before the visit. This is normally known as the process of conducting a pre-visit to the host to find out relevant information that pertain the region. It is significant to have a pre-knowledge of the people around to avoid confusion that is brought about a series of misunderstanding. Some sources are available on online site that can assist guide the individual to read and learn about the nation. Moreover, the embassy of the tourist can also contribute to the aspect of the process by making sure that their citizens are taught first about the nation before visiting the area. This can be done at the embassy level or the individual‘s nation.

Moreover, it is also important for the tourist host to have a consideration of the non-verbal aspects. Some communications are always taking place without expressions. There are some cultures such as the Arabs who have some problems speaking good English and therefore either the host or tourist must learn the situation and extends a solution to the problem. Moreover, other cultures do not embrace shaking of hands since they consider it as insults especially in the days of Ramadan. Therefore, a tourist visiting these regions during the times should be aware of the fact and consider using other ways of greeting. Therefore, these considerations are important for the good relationship that exists between the host and tourist (Porter & Salazar, 2005).


It is very clear that cross-cultural communication and understanding not only influences the international tourist but also significant for the host who is doing a global tourist business especially in the field of language. Most importantly, the tourist who travels in the intercultural regions has a high chance of being affected by the presence of other cultures and their own as well. Moreover, the presence of different languages gives rise to the aspects of misunderstanding and some extent non-communications. The cross-cultural understanding in the global industry is ensuring that there is a good relationship to the tourist who comes to their regions for greater development.


Boer, D., & Fischer, R. (2013). How and when do personal values guide our attitudes and sociality? Explaining cross-cultural variability in attitude–value linkages. Psychological Bulletin, 139(5), 1113.

Dolnicar, S. (2005). Understanding barriers to leisure travel: Tourist fears as a marketing basis. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 11(3), 197-208.

DLUZEWSKA (2008), The influence of Religion on Global and Local Conflict in Tourism: Case Studies in Muslim Countries.In: BURNS, P. M. & NOVELLI, M., Tourism Development: Growth, Myths, and Inequalities, Wallingford: CAB International, pp 52-67

Nordby, H. (2008). Values, cultural identity and communication: A Perspective from the philosophy of language. Journal of Intercultural Communication, 17(6), 6-18.

Lenzerini, F. (2016). Terrorism, Conflicts and the Responsibility to Protect Cultural Heritage. The International Spectator, 51(2), 70-85.

Porter, B. W., & Salazar, N. B. (2005). Heritage tourism, conflict, and the public interest: An introduction. International journal of heritage studies, 11(5), 361-370.


Book analysis and critical evaluation

The Two-Mile Time Machine Ice Cores, Abrupt Climate Change, and Our Future Updated Edition Richard B. Alley


The question about the future based on the issue of climate change is paramount. According to the author, in the case of the government trying to make decision on whether anything to do about climate shifts can pick from the various possible future. However, the future is projected to reach and arrive slowly allowing the government an ample time to respond. On the other hand, the historians of the climate will not explain the future but will assure that the problems will not arrive smoothly. Variability is the process and the rule, the challenges may arrive in bits and starts or in other situations it may arrive with jumps on the way. 

The author uses information from other investigators that have provided information about climate changes. The changes according to the investigators have launched deep into the time, with the seashells in rocks on the mountain tops and ferns pressed in between the sedimentary layers from the frozen depths. Therefore, based on the records of the investigation about warming and cooling, wetting and drying were noticed in the research. Additionally, there has been a sudden shift in the weather conditions. There has been regrowth of glaciers, and other modifications have started abruptly.

Moreover, the author observes the snow comes down on the ice sheets and is slowly squeezed into a pile of ice that is presently a hundred of miles and some kilometers from the middle. The presence of ice is used to determine and verify some climatic conditions. It is a factor and element to a particular conditions and season. The ice melts and spreads slowly under its weight to form icebergs. Indeed, the increasing loss of ice is not far from the rate of snowfall experienced over 100,000 years back. This information explains why the there are changes in the global climate.

In the book, Alley demonstrates a period of slow cooling and colds that have been punctuated by some durations of sudden warming. Again, Richard notes that climatic stability seems to be exceptions rather than a rule and goes ahead to contend that the unusually warm and perhaps the stable climatic conditions that we have experienced in the past few years are just anomaly. Through the study of the two miles long ice cores used to collect data about the climatic conditions suspected to be global warming factors, Alley reveals various elements that contribute to the global climatic modifications such as the wind patterns, the ocean currents, and the drifting continents. I agree with these arguments to the factors that contribute to the global climate change. He has suggested that the natural elements such as ocean currents which are far beyond the expeditions and the influence of human beings. However, he does give details to explain the human influence and contributions to global climatic changes. It is vivid that some human activities have resulted in the global warming due to the release of carbon and other gases to the air. I also agree with the explanations that humans have experienced an unusually temperate climate to the wild fluctuations that characterized in the past times as recorded in history. This is true to abound that the changes have been evident in the climatic situations in the prehistoric states.

Generally, in the lively pose, shows that climate is sometimes stable but this can happen when pushed to shift by both natural forces and human factors. Such changes can take place more drastically and at an alarming rate than what the industrial society has never witnessed before among the shifts. I don’t agree with his conclusion claiming that climate can be stable. Alley does not predict the methods that human factors will influence climate and the climatic changes will influence humans in the society. Richard provides instructive glimpses about the past and the future of the climatic situations brought by both natural factors and human factors. The stability of the climatic change depends on the solutions to the factors that contribute to the end of the challenge.

In the article, Alley uses the geology to explain how the ice caps thave resulted to a climatic history. Therefore, through that he uses the present times aspects of the weather to predict the future weather conditions that comes as a result of the drastic conditions. These situation has been developed in the article is claimed to have a modification taking place through a number of human activities such as habitation. Therefore, this is relevant through the entire article by Richard.


Richard Alley explains the discovery that the last ice age came to an abrupt end over a period of only decades ago. In the Two-mile time machine, Richard tells a significant history of the global climatic changes as shown by the reading about the annual rings of ice from the cores as drilled in Greenland. He gives illustrations about what people have experienced temperate climate in comparison to the wild fluctuation as recorded in the prehistoric times. However, based on the book, I agree with most factors apart from the statement that the climate stability depends on the push between the human and the natural factors. The natural factors cannot be rectified since it is influenced by the humans.


Book analysis and critique

Reinventing Fire: Bold Business Solutions for the New Energy Era


The book “Reinventing Fire: Bold Business Solutions for the New Energy Era” by Lovins and Rocky Mountain Institute provides a roadmap to the end of all coal, oil and nuclear energy consumptions in the coming 30 years. Moreover, it intended to break the countries addictions to the fossil fuels that have affected the society. It predicts of a future that will utilize renewable energy such as wind, solar, and others to a tune of 43% of the all available energy with much of the rest emanating from non-cropland biofuels, hydrogen and hydro-electric. Additionally, the book claims that the society does not need carbon taxes, subsidies and other mandates to achieve its multifaceted energy plan. The book has various chapters, but the analysis and evaluation will be based on chapter one, two, five and six.

Chapter one is about de-fossilizing fuels. The author uses various theories such as ‘’you cannot travel the path until you have become the path by Gautama Buddha to introduce the topic.  The dependence of oil in the United States and the globe has increased tremendously. The states have depended more on the cheap oil whose market price is determined by the economy and continues to fluctuate. There has been the discussion of whether the world has reached the peak of oil production. This is evident in the rising cost despite the increasing technology. This predicts the future of oil ownership, raising tensions as a result of the over-dependence of oil.

Moreover, chapter 2, the author discusses the transportation based on fitter vehicles and smart applications. In this chapter predicts the future of the automobile industry. In 2050, there will be super-efficient automobiles, trucks, and planes with fewer fuel consumptions, no oil and have a less lifecycle cost compared to the vehicles presently. There will be an uncompromised convenience, safety, and performance of the machines. Again, in chapter 5, the author discusses the need for electricity based on repowering prosperity. The society needs to embrace the use of clean energy such as electricity. The next electricity system will be based on the conventional Approach to Carbon-Free electricity. There are factors such as carbon that lead to the much pollution cases and thus a need for one broad direction.

However, in chapter 6, the author Lovins reveals something about fracking and the shale gas, he accepts that the process will take some time to resolve the fracking issues in the nation, reforms operators that are not needed and create a stable form of engine that can earn public trust. Either, the natural gas is viewed as a significant modification of fuel to help with the operation of getting rid coal, and oil. It would seem impossible to shake entirely the fossil fuel dependence in the future that is the year 2050. Consequently, even with the challenges, the author suggests that the risks to the reinventing of the fire objective are limited. However, this lies within technological and economic arguments that are present in the book and have resulted to the development of renewable technologies, but are not adopted as the process of reinventing fire path.

The book presents Lovins’ discussion and claims that there is major scope for conservation measures and alternative technologies that can assist in solving the problems. This is to be achieved to maintain the rich world economies and lifestyle. According to him, at least 80% of the United States power and the entire energy supply can be made from the renewable sources of energy in the next 30 years. I like the enthusiastic nature of the author of the great possibility that will solve the emerging problems such as insufficiency and more so the pollution that is stirred by the use of oil and coal. Moreover, I also agree with his statement in the first chapter on the dependence of United States on oil despite its level of inefficiency on the matters of the environment. It is true that the society would go for something as long as it’s affordable without considering other factors such as availability, and effects to the environment. The US extended the use of oil because it is cheap compared to other sources of energy. 

Additionally, Lovins claims the possibility of people driving super-efficient vehicles that are fueled by a flexible mix of electricity, hydrogen, and sustainable biofuels. He has proposed the factors that would lead to the transformation process as drive the transition to the super-efficient machines, investing across technologies and not just one technology and support the policies that are placed to support the policies to fasten the transition process. I agree with the facts about this chapter since it provides a world that every nation is trying to build. It has also provided the various were to follow to realize the dream and also to provide a solution to the shift in the oil prices based on demands.

However, I don’t think some chapters of him winning the oil endgame. Most significantly, I regard the arguments to be unsatisfactory and also unconvincing. Moreover, there are no derivations of the conclusions. The vital issue such as cost factors requires numerical analysis and explanations that are provided in chapter two of the book. For example, Lovins’ claim considerable reductions in the energy demands that will be achieved by efficiency operations. His renewable scenario considers a 705 reduction in the electricity demands. However, there is no evidence to support such as the claim in the book. There are numerous energy reduction technologies, but no case that this would provide an addition to the claim reduction.

Basically, based on cost Lovins says that the capital cost of transition to providing 2050 United States electricity retrieved from renewable energy sources will be about $6 trillion in cost. There are no reasons to support the factors for the figure, and the amount is declared in the book. This would seem misleading as plants are usually assumed to exist for more than 25 years. On the other hand, he assumes that wind energy would be providing about 50% of all demand.

The business solutions that is presented by the author is based on the future application of oil for the development of the nation. There are a number of climatic effects that is entiled to the application of oil such as issues in relating to pollution. According to the chapters of the book, there is an issue that is raised based on environmental factors that would require attention for the soltutions to be realized. However, the situation is realized on the reading that is expressed by the authors.


The book just like any other research project is focused on four major themes which are transportation, buildings, and industry. This has a potential to make possible in the way in how electricity is made. Lovins demonstrate on how oil and coal as well as natural gas in the long run, can be eliminated and replaced with renewable energy. The opening of the story begins with the metaphor of fire which is used by the author. The memory of groups that have gathered around a fire indicated the various applications of fire based on history. The book is based on facts and predictions on the future, except some that discuss energy does not provide a valid explanation to some data.


The Artwork I liked and the one I disliked

The Emperor by David Salle

The intensity of the color in the artwork was used by the artist with a combination of bright colors such as sky blue, dark blue, black and white. The art represents figures that are lined up together in a variety of styles. The background of the art is made up real features, and this can be seen through the coloring element. The figures presented also have close links with each other to bring out the ideas presented by the Artist.

The painting shows a variety of contrast of both light and dark colors that can be seen easily in the artwork. Moreover, the artist also creates space by having a wide space between the people and land extending to the sky. The painting also has real lines to represent some features. For example, a ghostly looking line it is drawn off the head, and the shoulder of the young man in the art. The other line represents a fishing machine holding some fish on the end while the draped lining a description of a towel that was being used in the 19th century. Moreover, the artist uses a variety of colors values for the clothing and also for nature around to show the difference between the shaded area and the area of imagination. The painting also shows a realistic scene such as there is a minimal like coffin like flats according to the shape, and a stripped, a flat in the landscape, and plain bears the image of a shirt from a harlequin. Moreover, there is a wreath encircles the crossed legs of the boy. There is also a splash of vegetation that lies behind the tree trunk that is hovering between the boy and the girl.

Based on stylistic mode, I think the painting is about some young individual in love and enjoying their adventure. Maybe they are in a fishing activity due to the presence of the image of fish. There are only two people in the picture sited and having a picnic.

I think that this is a good and quality painting since the artist uses a variety of styles to come up with the image and also applies some colors that create distinctions. The contrast that exists between the shaded area and the light region indicates that the activity was taking place during the day. Moreover, the artist uses a variety of colors and values and applies the concept of uniqueness in his style of painting.

Portrait of Emy by Karl Schmidt-Rottluff

The artwork presents Emy as something else that would make the viewer’s think that she wears a mask. First, the artwork is faint and appears to have an unclear element of color. The painting of the work has interfered with the identity of the individual represented. Therefore, in the same aspect of color, the portrait has orange color intensified by the artist.

The painting shows a contrast of light and dark colors presented on the facial and around the image. The artist uses the entire space by having the portrait covering the whole space. There is no line in the painting since it is painted in the pointillist styles. The painting does not show a realistic scene since it seems as if Emy has won some mask on the same. Moreover, there is also a variation of shades region from the color value using a mixture of orange and black as a contrast.

Based on the psychological aspect, I think the picture is a representation of Emy in a sad situation due to the aspect of unreality that is magnified. Maybe the artist wanted to describe the person by using the picture as a memory since the picture is absurd and hence subject to more interpretation.

I think that the painting is not good because the artist uses an absurd style to make imagery of Emy. Moreover, the contrast between the shaded area and the light area indicates a description of something else and not a human being. The artist uses strange colors and uses the point of uniqueness to a different painting.


The reactions to both artworks were an opportunity to learn more about the artwork. The use of color in art is an important concept that I learned in the process. I value the aspect of being real in any artwork because it is easy for interpretation and is not based on myths or mystery. Moreover, a real piece of art enables an individual to learn and relate the message to the society. An art without meaning has no value to the society. Consequently, I dislike the aspect of art being without purpose and also have a distinction of color value. For example, painting the face of a person orange is something does not look real as in the case of Emy’s Portrait. However, the artist had his intentions while performing the painting. Therefore, it is vivid that despite the fact that artworks are silent in speech, it has a different voice that comes from the styles, imagery and other themes portrayed.

Artwork Emperor

Pastoral with Bananas, 1999-2000
Fishing, 1998

Portrait of Emy
Karl Schmidt-Rottluff, Woman in Blue, 1923

Racial diversity in relation to Music in the United States of America

Michael Jackson

The artist was one of the first musicians to break the barrier and wall with the black and whites. Therefore, Michael as a black artist owned the genre for the Pop music which was a leading genre before the white musicians. He was of great assistance when he was involved in the family band known as Jackson 5. He became a solo artist which took the pop genre by a storm. Michael Jackson was the first Africa American to internationally enter the pop music genre and became a popular pop star on the MTV. He managed to break the barrier with his song’’ thriller’’ which was not so easy to do though (Brown).

Pop music uses a simple, memorable melody and also emphasizes on the element of rhythm, usually syncopation and stripped to a loop that repeats throughout most of the songs. The songs can be written by someone and then sung by another artist. Moreover, pop music is understood to be commercially recorded with the main aim of having a mass pull of audience, with the result that its style changes with time and place. The pop music is always involved in a mass of marketing that is done through the radio, television, and other media platform thus making it part of the society. Therefore, with the same measure, it has received criticism especially on the side of black artists who were not welcomed in recording studios. The songs of the blacks were taken by the music executives who would sell the lyrics to the white artist willing to have the music. The artistic such as Michael Jackson faced a lot of challenges to enter the pop music industry due to the issue of racial discrimination. However, even with such limitations, he managed to penetrate the wall which surprised so many people.

The pop music needed to pass through the media platforms, advertisements, and radio to maintain their culture of popularity. The medium for getting to the top was through the executive of music to allow the music reach the public. These factors hindered the black artists like Michael Jackson to gain entry to the industry easily. Moreover, the audience was mainly the white people who had a voice to constitute the evaluation process. Therefore, they managed to disvalue anything from the black people despite the level of quality and other factors. The whites were given more priority compared to their counterparts the people of color. The wall was so rigid with a need for a more interpersonal approach.

However, with the existence of the racial barriers within the Pop genre, Michael Jackson managed to penetrate. The artist looks for the various ways to attract the public or the citizens despite their color. It is imperative that even the whites celebrated his music and dances. Therefore, based on research it is vivid that Michael was able to invent and create something new out of the ordinary that existed in Pop genre. The Pop music was characterized by both songs and dances to make it more interesting compared to other music such as Blues. Therefore, based on the existing racial discrimination at that time it was very hard to penetrate with the same dancing style and songs that existed before within the pop stars. The new creation based on the dancing styles and artist creativity in his music known as ‘Thriller’’ turned many people to his performance (Kellner). His shows were being attended by many whites compared to the black people. These were very different from what was happening in the background for the black artist.

The reception changed with the inclusion of the new developments based on talent and works as well. The executive for music could not regulate his performance as the majority of the public loved the songs and dances. The racial discrimination on the side of music faced a lot of challenges at that time since they had nothing to do in order to stop Michael Jackson (Taylor). Therefore, based on the characteristics of attracting many people, it was very easy to take and gather a population for a specific show.


The race factor in various groups is real and has affected many people. There are various areas where race is implemented like in this case is in the production of Pop music. Most of the black artists were discriminated for participating in the production of the music because of the race factor. Therefore, the black people could write their songs which were being sold to the whites to sing. Moreover, the public discriminated the black artist and could not allow them to display their talents. However, Michael Jackson managed to push through and introduce a new style that acted as a key for his entry.

Work cited

Brackett, David. The pop, rock, and soul reader: histories and debates. Oxford University Press, USA, 2009.

Brown, Julie, ed. Western music and race. Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Kellner, Douglas. “Cultural studies, multiculturalism, and media culture.” Gender, race, and class in media: A critical reader 3 (2011): 7-18.

Taylor, Timothy D. Global pop: World music, world markets. Routledge, 2014.