Assess the results and significance of the ‘Peace of Westphalia’, in terms of both the peace treaties and the so-called ‘Westphalian System’

Referencing
This is a most important aspect of the historian’s job as it shows the scientific value of his/her work. Where did the historian get his/her information? What kind of sources did he/she use? Etc. Therefore, it is crucial that he/she clearly gives the details of the used primary and secondary sources, which are the basis of the historian’s work.
The referencing style below is based on Oxford style.
Students must:

• use Oxford style.
• use footnotes.
• not use end notes.
• not use notes in text (in-text citation).

Simply use the footnoting system on your computer, begin with footnote number 1 and end with whichever number is your last footnote (simple continuous numbering: 1,2,3,4…… 16, 17), and use the guidelines below.

A few general guidlines:

 *Secondary sources (books & articles written by historians)
 Book used for the 1st time:
 Mary Fulbrook, Anatomy of a Dictatorship; Inside the GDR 1949-1989 (Oxford: 
 Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 12, pp. 56-57 

 Book used for the 2nd time etc:
 Fulbrook, Anatomy of a Dictatorship, p. 181.

 Chapter in book used for the 1st time:
 Henning Hoff, ‘The GDR and the Labour Party, 1949-1989’, in Stefan Berger & 
 Norman Laporte (eds.), The Other Germany; Perceptions and influences in 
 British-East German Relations, 1945-1990 (Augsburg: Wissner Verlag, 2005), p. 
 125

 Chapter in book used for the 2nd time etc:
 Hoff, ‘The GDR and the Labour Party, 1949-1989’, p. 130

 Article used for the 1st time in a journal:
 Stefan Wolle, ‘In the Labyrinth of the Documents: The Archival Legacy of the 
 SED-State’, German History (1992, 10:3), p. 352.

 Article used for the 2nd time etc.:
 Wolle, ‘In the Labyrinth of the Documents’, p. 355.

 *Primary sources (original documents)
 Document found in an archive:
 National Archives of Ireland (NAI), Dublin, A55I, Tory to Boland, 10/11/1949.

 If you use material found in the same archive several times in your essay, then use the 
 abbreviation from the 2nd time onwards:     

 NAI, 2001/43/88, report entitled ‘Fears of economic breakdown in East 
 Germany’, author unknown, July 1961.


 Article in newspaper:
 The Irish Times, 26/04/1990 (or: 26 April 1990).
 or
 ‘GDR presses for observer status at EC’, by Colm Boland, The Irish Times, 
 26/04/1990 (or: 26 April 1990)

 Website:
 David Childs, ‘Obituary: Erich Honecker’, The Independent, 30/05/1994, in 
 www.independent.co.uk (accessed on 07/09/2010).

 If you use the same website source a 2nd time etc in your essay, no need to give the full 
 details again as you have already done so the 1st time (same principle with books, chapters 
 & articles):

 Childs, ‘Obituary: Erich Honecker’
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