This is a most important aspect of the historian’s job as it shows the scientific value of his/her work. Where did the historian get his/her information? What kind of sources did he/she use? Etc. Therefore, it is crucial that he/she clearly gives the details of the used primary and secondary sources, which are the basis of the historian’s work.
The referencing style below is based on Oxford style.
• use Oxford style.
• use footnotes.
• not use end notes.
• not use notes in text (in-text citation).
Simply use the footnoting system on your computer, begin with footnote number 1 and end with whichever number is your last footnote (simple continuous numbering: 1,2,3,4…… 16, 17), and use the guidelines below.
A few general guidlines:
*Secondary sources (books & articles written by historians) Book used for the 1st time: Mary Fulbrook, Anatomy of a Dictatorship; Inside the GDR 1949-1989 (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1995), p. 12, pp. 56-57 Book used for the 2nd time etc: Fulbrook, Anatomy of a Dictatorship, p. 181. Chapter in book used for the 1st time: Henning Hoff, ‘The GDR and the Labour Party, 1949-1989’, in Stefan Berger & Norman Laporte (eds.), The Other Germany; Perceptions and influences in British-East German Relations, 1945-1990 (Augsburg: Wissner Verlag, 2005), p. 125 Chapter in book used for the 2nd time etc: Hoff, ‘The GDR and the Labour Party, 1949-1989’, p. 130 Article used for the 1st time in a journal: Stefan Wolle, ‘In the Labyrinth of the Documents: The Archival Legacy of the SED-State’, German History (1992, 10:3), p. 352. Article used for the 2nd time etc.: Wolle, ‘In the Labyrinth of the Documents’, p. 355. *Primary sources (original documents) Document found in an archive: National Archives of Ireland (NAI), Dublin, A55I, Tory to Boland, 10/11/1949. If you use material found in the same archive several times in your essay, then use the abbreviation from the 2nd time onwards: NAI, 2001/43/88, report entitled ‘Fears of economic breakdown in East Germany’, author unknown, July 1961. Article in newspaper: The Irish Times, 26/04/1990 (or: 26 April 1990). or ‘GDR presses for observer status at EC’, by Colm Boland, The Irish Times, 26/04/1990 (or: 26 April 1990) Website: David Childs, ‘Obituary: Erich Honecker’, The Independent, 30/05/1994, in www.independent.co.uk (accessed on 07/09/2010). If you use the same website source a 2nd time etc in your essay, no need to give the full details again as you have already done so the 1st time (same principle with books, chapters & articles): Childs, ‘Obituary: Erich Honecker’