Developmental psychology was established after the industrial revolution where the workforce required educated adults. Thus, a line was made between adults and children. Charles Darwin performed the first study of developmental psychology in 1877 where he published a paper evaluating the communication between his infant son and him. The developmental psychology can be traced back to Preyer who published a book in 1882 on the psychology of children. This book assisted in creating developmental psychology as a discipline. Moreover, psychological science was born in Europe since its early days as was pointed out by scholars. The practice for this psychology was mainly practiced in France in working on child psychology as well as intelligence testing. A good example is the effort of Henri Pieron, an experimentalist who majored in the applied interventions to enhance safe work and psychological health (Bonebright, 2010).
There are various theories of human development as far as psychology is concerned. This would involve Sigmund Freud theory, Erick Erickson theory and also Elisabeth Kubler-Rose theory. Sigmund Freud was the original founder of psychoanalysis and was born in 1856 in Moravia (Green & Piel, 2015). Since he was the founder of psychoanalysis, the many theories that were developed later were compared to the original theory. He was always under review and criticism. The theory dealt with how the human minds operate hence plays an important part in shaping behavior. However, Erickson theory of psychological development has various stages and maintained that personality develops in a predetermined order and is built upon the past stages. Based on this theory, successful completion of every stage brings in a healthy personality and also the basic virtues acquisitions. Moreover, Elisabeth Kubler-Ross theory suggests that when severe grief occurs people go through emotions which take place in consecutive stages.
Physical, emotional and cognitive changes always take place through the lifespan of an individual. There is an overall sequence of development that is fixed but the rate of development can sometimes differ because of various factors. Physically a child is able to develop in terms of growth and also in a statute. As the child attains school age, they are increasing physical independence. At this stage, they are able to learn new skills such as skipping, running, cycling and also ball games. Emotionally the child begins to have feelings with everything around. They develop emotional attachments to the individuals other than family members by being happy and sometimes would begin to cry when they are upset. Moreover, cognitively the child starts school education and begins to develop an understanding of authority and also following rules. In this stage, they are able to learn new things in schools. The child is able to work out assignments that are given from school also come up with intellectual thoughts that are mind building. For example, a child will be able to learn to play with the phone (Sigelman & Rider, 2014).
Pathology is a branch of science that tends to find the cause of something. Pathology in childhood provides with the means to identify a group of severely disturbed children who exhibit a variety of functions. It is based on clinical observation using diverse criteria with minimal samples. The thoughts of the children are marked by an inability to think actively. Adolescence, on the other hand, is defined as a physical transition marked by the onset of puberty and the termination of the physical growth. There are various changes cognitively and physically based on the body mass. Moreover, pathology in adulthood has no much information. An adult is expected to be fully grown in respect to cognitive, physical and emotional. This reduces the normal pathway making it short as compared to that of a child where there are a lot of unfinished operations. An adult is able to think right hence making it easy for all the operation based on cognitive development (Courchesne, Campbell & Solso, 2011).
Socio-culture can be defined as a set of values, beliefs, and behaviors that are shared by a group of people. These factors are responsible for the varying development in human. Culture is able to distinguish one person from another (Rogoff, 2003). People within the society share common behavior and way of thinking which is learned socially. Human development involves individual activities beginning from birth, infancy, childhood, adolescence and also through adulthood. An individual born in a given society have a given way of life-based on the cultural activities around. For example, in a religious family, a child will grow up and also adapt to that culture since the family is its first agent of socialization. The societal life has a diverse role in the life of an individual. The way an individual reacts with people around depends on the way he or she is brought up. A child will develop immoral behaviors based on the environment where they are brought in and most of all the people they constantly interact with. For example, a child staying around people who are criminals tend to behave in a manner that is crime-like.
Bonebright, D. A. (2010). 40 years of storming: a historical review of Tuckman’s model of small group development. Human Resource Development International, 13(1), 111-120.
Courchesne, E., Campbell, K., & Solso, S. (2011). Brain growth across the life span in autism: age-specific changes in anatomical pathology. Brain research, 1380, 138-145.
Green, M. G., & Piel, J. A. (2015). Theories of human development: A comparative approach. Psychology Press.
Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature of human development. Oxford university press.
Sigelman, C. K., & Rider, E. A. (2014). Life-span human development. Cengage Learning.