Discuss and describe the four components of emergency management?

The emergence Management

The best society is the one that has an active emergency team with the right skills to respond to any emergency that approaches without notice just like the name suggests. As a result of the constant attack from the natural and other kinds of hazards, most of the nations have set up some responsive teams to work with the primary objective of managing any that approaches. Perhaps, what is always heard from the officials is the response part of management with the team failing to recognize the other essential components of mitigation, preparedness, and recovery. Therefore, the Federal emergency management agency should take notice of the four elements to ensure that the risks are controlled adequately. Moreover, the management of the components should also consider the principles of emergency management like flexibility and others that can aid in the formation of a better component (Drabek, 2003).


It is the action of seeking to reduce the seriousness of something and involves activities that strive to reduce the long term risks of the human beings and properties far from human-made and natural hazards. The activities include the creation of the disaster insurance to aid in the control of the risks during the occurrence. Sometimes, the risks may be so destructive, and perhaps it’s important to plan something to reduce it. For example a person taking a motor vehicle insurance against the unknown accidents that might occur in the future, or perhaps a government imposing tax incentive to get funds with the central goal of managing the hazards like poverty, floods and others (Goss, 1998). The other actions involve phenomenon like risk mapping, proper land-use strategies and also the imposition of the safety codes. However, to have an appropriate management in mitigation, the officials should consider the relevance of flexibility, coordination, and other principles to assist in standing up for the people. The relevant authorities ought to have a big picture of the hazard that the public.


This is perhaps essential components in the management strategy of the emergency issues since it involves the right ways of combating with the hazard upon occurrence. The aspects of preparation are fundamental, and it has been applied in many life instances in the bid to avoid the tension that comes when something unexpected happens (Goss, 1998). It is therefore achieved and maintained through a constant cycle of effective planning, organizing, evaluating and training. The ongoing preparedness strategies in all of the people involved in the management and the incident response activities always ensure that there is appropriate coordination in the times of crisis where little-unplanned issues could be done at that point.

The component describes specific measures and essentials that the emergency response personnel and the related groups should develop and incorporate in their entire programs and plans to enhance the operational preparedness against all of the hazards. Therefore, the actions involve the emergency operational plans; we have the warning systems perhaps to ensure that that the public is aware in the case of the occurrence through the use of equipment like sirens, alarms, and others to pass a message to the public. Moreover, we have the creation of the emergency centers such as the national aids that are charged with the roles and duties of receiving calls from all over the states to ensure that there is communication (Goss, 1998). The component also involves training of the relevant team and equips them with a specific emergency management response to the hazard to ensure that the operations will be fruitful and appropriate. There is also the element of the mutual aid agreement to make sure that there is enough support system for the hazard and adequate exercise is taken to ensure certainty is achieved.


This involves the activities that are perhaps taken immediately before, during and after an emergency has occurred with the aim of saving lives, to minimize any damages of the property or more so the bid to improve the recovery process in case of any damage that has happened in the process. The response is an essential component of the management and also takes into consideration some of the principles like the flexibility of the operations carried out to ensure that the actions are effective and efficient. The component is very much important since it involves and entails the actions that are taken at the point or rather the time of emergency to control and lower its risks from the people (Goss, 1998).

Additionally, the component involves the emergency medical assistance to the individuals in the case where some of the people suffered injuries in the occurrence of the hazard like an accident or floods that affected the health of some victim of the process (Goss, 1998). The issue of shelter and evacuation strategies in the case where some of the victims have been left homeless due to the occurrences like fire, floods, and earthquakes or sometimes human made like the clan or tribal clashes. In this component, the management should now use the experienced and trained officials to allow the allocation of the required services to the people or perhaps the disaster victims. Moreover, it also involves the use of search and rescue teams with the aim of finding out any victim and save them from the hazard.


This phase is very essential in the management of the emergency issues after a tragic hazard has occurred in the society. It incorporates the short term activities that are trying to restore vital life support systems to minimum operating standards and also the long term actions that try to bring back life to normal. The hazards such as earthquakes, floods and hurricanes always leaves the land ugly and therefore one of the actions will involve the management of the teams organizing for debris clearance to bring the property back to its normal state before the risk occurred. It also includes the FEMA departments establishing some temporary houses for the families and individual who have been rendered homeless after the incident with the aim of making a recovery. Moreover, the facilities that have been destroyed during the process should be rebuilt by the organization and all of this makes up the recovery component (McLoughlin, 1985).


The four elements of the emergency management program follow a chain of importance for the whole operation. The components relate and depend on one another and therefore make it vivid to the managers that for the emergency process to work efficiently, the four should be applied stage after stage to get the right solution to the people when such things occur. For example, it is very impossible to carry out recovery actions without mitigation, preparedness, response components since the chain has to be maintained.


Drabek, T. E. (2003). Strategies for coordinating disaster responses. Boulder, CO: Institute of Behavior Sciences.

Goss, K. C. (Ed.). (1998). Guide for all-hazard emergency operations planning. DIANE Publishing.

McLoughlin, D. (1985). A framework for integrated emergency management. Public Administration Review, 45, 165-172.

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